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January 1:1801–The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland is completed
     1月 1日: 1801年イギリス王国とアイルランドの立法連合成立
Wikipedia(English edition)(January 1:"
1801 – The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland is completed, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland is proclaimed."
                     "
The Act of Union 1801-YOUR IRISH CULTURE"
             "
How Scotland was Forced into Union with England-Wizzley"
                "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland-Wikipedia"
             
                     "The Act of Union 1801-Images"
                   (The 50-11-line-photo-attached file/370.05KB/33.6KB/line)
 
   Image result for January 1, 1801Image result for The Act of UnionImage result for The Act of UnionImage result for The Act of UnionImage result for 1801–The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland is completed
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   Image result for The Act of UnionImage result for The Act of UnionImage result for The Act of Union
 Image result for the beginning of the 19th centuryImage result for the beginning of the 19th centuryImage result for England was still at war with FranceImage result for England was still at war with France
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   Image result for 1801–The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland is completedImage result for 1801–The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland is completedImage result for 1801–The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland is completedImage result for 1801–The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland is completed
  Image result for wikipediaFlag of the United KingdomRoyal coat of arms (1837–1922) of the United KingdomThe United Kingdom in 1921Map of Great Britain in 1720HIBERNIAE REGNUM tam in praecipuas ULTONIAE, CONNACIAE, LAGENIAE, et MOMONIAE, quam in minores earundem Provincias, et Ditiones subjacentes peraccuraté divisum
 
  
                                                  "The Act of Union 1801-YOUR IRISH CULTURE"
             "How Scotland was Forced into Union with England-Wizzley"
The Act of Union came into effect on January 1, 1801, joining Ireland to Great Britain, creating the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

At the beginning of the 19th century, England was still at war with France, and there were fears that Ireland would once again resort to rebellion or fall to a renewed invasion attempt by the French.

In 1799, William Pitt, the British prime minister had introduced a bill to the Irish parliament for the unification of Ireland and Great Britain as a single kingdom. Central to this bill was the repeal of the last two Penal laws which forbade Catholics from becoming members of parliament and exclusion from certain public positions.

The bill was defeated due to the resistance of many members of the Irish parliament to the proposed Union. Many members of this Protestant parliament were antagonistic to the idea of Catholic emancipation. This antagonism was shared by the monarch, King George lll, himself. With reluctance, Pitt had to drop the emancipation of Catholics from the bill. The first attempt to have the Act of Union failed in January 1799.

However Pitt was not to be put off and throughout 1799 he, along with Lord Cornwallis the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland and Viceroy Castlereagh the Chief Secretary, worked hard in winning over the Irish parliament to acceptance of the bill. In order to achieve this, they had resorted to bribery and patronage on a massive scale. Castlereagh was so disgusted by this that he wrote

my occupation is now of the most unpleasant nature, negotiating and jobbing with the most corrupt people under heaven…I despise and hate myself every hour for engaging in such dirty work

Their endeavors were successful and on 15th January 1800, after a very lively debate and accompanied by street fighting in Dublin, the bill was passed with a majority of 60 by the Irish Parliament. The Union was also ratified by the British parliament and on 1st January 1801, the two kingdoms joined together becoming The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.

Many of the rising Catholic middle class were enthusiastic towards the Union believing that they would soon gain emancipation. For the same reason, the Orange brethren were opposed to the union. A new flag was created incorporating the crosses of St. Patrick, St. George and St. Andrew.

The Irish parliament was dissolved and one hundred Irish MPs and thirty-two Irish peers took their seats in the London Houses of parliament. Another union also took place. That was the union of the Church of Ireland to the Church of England thus sending four bishops also into the House of Lords.

Ireland would remain part of the Union until the introduction of the Anglo-Irish Agreement in 1921 bringing the War of Independence to an end.

            "How Scotland was Forced into Union with England-Wizzley"
On May Day 1707, a group of politicians huddled in secret to sign the Act of Union, while rioting Scots sought desperately to stop them. Thus Great Britain was born.

It might be argued that Scotland was never exactly 'forced' into doing anything. Its Parliament voted overwhelmingly to enter into a union with England. Its politicians scribbled their names onto the document which made it so.

But the kind of people who state such points mistake the will of hand-picked leaders with vested interests, for the opinion of the actual population.

Only an estimated 1% of Scots wanted their country to lose independence in 1707. The signatories to the Union with England Act did so behind locked doors, with an angry mob ready to tear them limb from limb.

Yet there was nothing Scotland could do about it, once the ink was dry.

A History of Thwarted Attempts for a United Kingdom

Scotland and England are the two largest nations within the British Isles. Endless wars have been fought along that border.

For much of both countries' history, there have been repeated attempts to unite Scotland and England under a common leader.

Whether it was Roman legions pushing north; early English monarchs with armies, diplomats or marriages; or Stuart royals with wish-lists, those cards had long since been on the table.

Scotland had always resisted with all its might. Even clawing back independence, when it seemed utterly lost.

As late as 1702, William of Orange had proposed a union between Scotland and England. His idea met with a lukewarm reception both sides of the border, so was quietly dropped without another word.

But just four years later, thirty-one Scottish Commissioners rushed down to London to negotiate the terms of precisely that joining of the kingdoms. 

English peers quickly signed into being the Union with Scotland Act. Then, on May 1st 1707, members of the Scottish Parliament signed away their nation's independence with the twin Union with England Act.

So what changed their minds?

January 1

Gregorian calendar

 

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