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         July 14
Titus and his armies breach the wall of Jerusalem. 
Wikipedia:"AD 7-Titus and his armies breach the wall of Jerusalem.(17th of Tammuz in the Hebrew calendar)."
日本語版(15日付):「1099年 - 第1回十字軍エルサレム攻囲戦: 十字軍によりエルサレムが陥落。エルサレム攻囲戦が終結。」
   "Siege of Jerusalem -ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANICA "(Written by Kate Lohnes)
                          "Siege of Jerusalem -ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANICA "
               "Siege of Jerusalem-Images"      "Josephus-Wikipedia"                                           (The 45-11-line-photo-attached file/380.03KB)
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  Image result for wikipediaJosephus.jpg     "Siege of Jerusalem -ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANICA "(Written by Kate Lohnes)


Titus Flavius Josephus (/ˈsfəs/;[1] Greek: Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – c. 100),[2] born Yosef ben Matityahu (Hebrew: יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Greek: Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς),[3][4][5] was a first-century Romano-Jewish historian who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.

He initially fought against the Romans during the First Jewish–Roman War as head of Jewish forces in Galilee, until surrendering in 67 CE to Roman forces led by Vespasianafter the six-week siege of Jotapata. Josephus claimed the Jewish Messianic prophecies that initiated the First Roman-Jewish War made reference to Vespasian becoming Emperor of Rome. In response Vespasian decided to keep Josephus as a slave and presumably interpreter. After Vespasian became Emperor in 69 CE, he granted Josephus his freedom, at which time Josephus assumed the emperor's family name of Flavius.[6]

Flavius Josephus fully defected to the Roman side and was granted Roman citizenship. He became an advisor and friend of Vespasian's son Titus, serving as his translator when Titus led the Siege of Jerusalem. Since the siege proved ineffective at stopping the Jewish revolt, the city's destruction and the looting and destruction of Herod's Temple (Second Temple) soon followed.

Josephus recorded Jewish history, with special emphasis on the first century CE and the First Jewish–Roman War (66–70 CE),[7] including the Siege of Masada. His most important works were The Jewish War (c. 75) and Antiquities of the Jews (c. 94).[8] The Jewish War recounts the Jewish revolt against Roman occupation. Antiquities of the Jews recounts the history of the world from a Jewish perspective for an ostensibly Greek and Roman audience. These works provide valuable insight into first century Judaism and the background of Early Christianity,[8] and are the chief source next to the Bible for the history and antiquity of ancient Palestine.[9]


Siege of Jerusalem, (70 CE), Roman military blockade of Jerusalem during the First Jewish Revolt. The fall of the city marked the effective conclusion of a four-year campaign against the Jewish insurgency in Judaea. The Romans destroyed much of the city, including the Second Temple. The majority of information on the siege comes from the copious notes of the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus.


In 63 BCE the Roman general Pompey captured Jerusalem. The Romans ruled through a local client king and largely allowed free religious practice in Judaea. At times, the divide between monotheistic and polytheistic religious views caused clashes between Jews and Gentiles. This friction, combined with oppressive taxation and unwanted imperialism, culminated in 66 CE in the First Jewish Revolt. The revolt was successful at first: Jewish forces quickly expelled the Romans from Jerusalem, and a revolutionary government was formed that extended its influence into the surrounding area. In response, the Roman emperor Nero sent the general Vespasian to meet the Jewish forces, an endeavour that pushed the majority of the rebels into Jerusalem by the time Vespasian was proclaimed emperor in 69 CE.

The Fall Of Jerusalem

In April 70 CE, about the time of Passover, the Roman general Titus besieged Jerusalem. Since that action coincided with Passover, the Romans allowed pilgrims to enter the city but refused to let them leave—thus strategically depleting food and water supplies within Jerusalem. Within the walls, the Zealots, a militant anti-Roman party, struggled with other Jewish factions that had emerged, which weakened the resistance even more. Josephus, a Jew who had commanded rebel forces but then defected to the Roman cause, attempted to negotiate a settlement, but, because he was not trusted by the Romans and was despised by the rebels, the talks went nowhere. The Romans encircled the city with a wall to cut off supplies to the city completely and thereby drive the Jews to starvation.

By August 70 CE the Romans had breached the final defenses and massacred much of the remaining population. They also destroyed the Second Temple. The Western Wall, the only extant trace of the Second Temple, remains a site of prayer and pilgrimage. The loss of the Temple for a second time is still mourned by Jews during the fast of Tisha be-Av. Rome celebrated the fall of Jerusalem by erecting the triumphal Arch of Titus.

July 15


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