Back to TOP
Events January 20, Yoshida-selected
日本語版：「1265年 - シモン・ド・モンフォールの主導で、ウェストミンスター宮殿にて全国から選出された貴族の代表者が会合。最初のイギリス国会と看做すこともある。
English Edition:"1265 – The first English parliament to include not only Lords but also representatives of the major towns holds its first meeting in the Palace of Westminster, now commonly known as the "Houses of Parliament".
"The Origins of English Parliament-History-today"
"1265–The first English parliament-Wikipedia-pictures"
(The 33-photo-attached file/409.43KB)
"The Origins of English Parliament-History-today"
The 750th anniversary of English Parliament is celebrated today. Why was it so significant?
English Parliament is said to find its foundation 750 years ago today (January 20th) when, following a civil war with Henry III, Simon de Montfort, 8th Earl of Leicester, called together a parliament of knights and burgesses, representatives of local towns, to discuss wider matters of English governance. Yet despite this landmark date, Montfort’s parliament was not the first such gathering in English history.
The Anglo-Saxons, understanding the need for decentralised power beyond the immediate reach of the king, used a system called the witangemot, the meeting of the royal court based on Carolingian models of governing. The witan met in regional localities to discuss issues beyond the scope of everyday matters of government. It moved around the country; the majority were held in the south of England, focused on Winchester and London, with rare trips further north to Nottingham and Lincoln. The names of those present at a witan were recorded in lists of witnesses to land-grants, which show that, for example, in the reign of Æthelstan (927-39) sometimes up to as many as 100 were in attendance. The king’s rule was wholly entangled with the Church, so while the meetings were secular and attended by thegns, ealdormen or earls and other noblemen, bishops and abbots also attended to offer religious counsel. The king was present to witness and validate the declaration of law, but that is not to say that the king was solely responsible for law-making: it was a process of discussion, with many voices.
Other processes connected with Parliament, such as record-keeping and the treasury, are less easily defined: the presence and form of the royal chancery - the scribes and record-keepers who accompanied the witan and produced its charters and grants - are the subject of an ongoing and seemingly unending debate among scholars and the origins of the English treasury have been described by Warren Hollister as ‘mysterious as the migration of eels’.
In his magisterial work of 2010, The Origins of the English Parliament, 924-1327 (reviewed here), J.R. Maddicott sees the witan as the earliest origin of England's modern Parliament, as it began the process of allowing small collections of representatives to set the laws for the whole country.
This foundation was built upon following the Norman Conquest, as William I preserved many of the structures set in place by the witan, but also increased its attendance by obliging all landholding tenants to be present, a move which brought in a larger portion of the non-elite population and resulted in the king coming under greater accountability. The effects of this can be seen in Magna Carta (1215) which holds the king accountable to his subjects. Thus, the Parliament of 1265 did not appear fully-formed without reference to these early models, but was built following their design.
Simon de Montfort, the man credited with calling the first English Parliament, had a tempestuous and inconsistent relationship with Henry III, in turns close and fractious, due to Montfort’s marriage to Henry’s sister Eleanor, debts incurred on both sides and Monfort’s repeated bids for increased power. Ongoing feuds with Henry and the noblemen loyal to him came to a head in the Battle of Lewes in 1264, in which Montfort was victorious and took Henry and his son Edward prisoner. With this moment of power, Montfort used the opportunity to cement it by calling together all those barons who were still loyal to him along with representatives from the shires and towns of England, a move which can be seen as a direct descendant of the Norman inclusion of tenants in the process of government. Despite this, his brief hold on power was short-lived as: in May, Edward managed to escape and soon after defeated Montfort and his supporters. Upon taking the crown, though, Edward I adopted this system of Parliament.
As has been pointed out by Marc Morris in his insightful blog on today's anniversary, Simon de Montfort’s Parliament of January 20th 1265 was by no means the first, so what makes this one notable? Morris argues, not much. Montfort’s Parliament was not the first to call on wider members of society than just the barons and the bishops, nor is it likely that his was the first to meet to discuss more than taxation: the Anglo-Saxon witan and the Norman assemblies both dealt with wider issues of governance. Equally, Morris argues, it cannot be held up as the start of a democratic Parliament as Montfort gained his power by imprisoning the king and his son and used Parliament to cement his power by gathering only those loyal to him.
The tradition of English parliament is long-standing and constantly changing, and its roots can be traced back to the start of England and to a system used across medieval Europe. Today, though notable. marks the anniversary of just one stage in the evolution of English Parliament.
- 250 – Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians. Pope Fabian is martyred.
- 649 – King Chindasuinth, at the urging of bishop Braulio of Zaragoza, crowns his son Recceswinth as co-ruler of the Visigothic Kingdom.
- 1265 – The first English parliament to include not only Lords but also representatives of the major towns holds its first meeting in the Palace of Westminster, now commonly known as the "Houses of Parliament".
- 1320 – Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes king of Poland.
- 1356 – Edward Balliol surrenders his claim to the Scottish throne to Edward III in exchange for an English pension.
- 1523 – Christian II is forced to abdicate as King of Denmark and Norway.
- 1567 – Battle of Rio de Janeiro: Portuguese forces under the command of Estácio de Sá definitively drive the French out of Rio de Janeiro.
- 1576 – The Mexican city of León is founded by order of the viceroy Don Martín Enríquez de Almanza.
- 1649 – Charles I of England goes on trial for treason and other "high crimes".
- 1783 – The Kingdom of Great Britain signed preliminary articles of peace with France, setting the stage to the official end of hostilities in the American Revolutionary War later that year.
- 1785 – Invading Siamese forces attempt to exploit the political chaos in Vietnam, but are ambushed and annihilated at the Mekong river by the Tây Sơn in the Battle of Rạch Gầm-Xoài Mút.
- 1788 – The third and main part of First Fleet arrives at Botany Bay. Arthur Phillip decides that Port Jackson is a more suitable location for a colony.
- 1839 – In the Battle of Yungay, Chile defeats an alliance between Peru and Bolivia.
- 1841 – Hong Kong Island is occupied by the British.
- 1877 – The last day of the Constantinople Conference results in agreement for political reforms in the Balkans.
- 1887 – The United States Senate allows the Navy to lease Pearl Harbor as a naval base.
- 1921 – The British K-class submarine HMS K5 sinks in the English Channel; all 56 on board die.
- 1921 – The first Constitution of Turkey is adopted, making fundamental changes in the source and exercise of sovereignty by consecrating the principle of national sovereignty.
- 1929 – In Old Arizona, the first full-length talking motion picture filmed outdoors, is released.
- 1936 – King George V of the United Kingdom dies. His eldest son succeeds to the throne, becoming Edward VIII. The title Prince of Wales is not used for another 22 years.
- 1937 – Franklin D. Roosevelt and John Nance Garner are sworn in for their second terms as U.S. President and U.S. Vice President, the first occasion a Presidential Inauguration to take place on January 20 following the ratification of the 20th Amendment
- 1941 – A German officer is killed in Bucharest, Romania, sparking a rebellion and pogrom by the Iron Guard, killing 125 Jews and 30 soldiers.
- 1942 – World War II: At the Wannsee Conference held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee, senior Nazi German officials discuss the implementation of the "Final Solution to the Jewish question".
- 1945 – World War II: The provisional government of Béla Miklós in Hungary agrees to an armistice with the Allies.
- 1945 – World War II: Germany begins the evacuation of 1.8 million people from East Prussia, a task which will take nearly two months.
- 1948 – United Nations Security Council Resolution 39 relating to India and Pakistan is adopted.
- 1949 – Point Four Program a program for economic aid to poor countries announced by United States President Harry S. Truman in his inaugural address for a full term as President.
- 1953 – Dwight D. Eisenhower is inaugurated as the 34th President of the United States of America, becoming the first President to begin his presidency on January 20 following the ratification of the 20th Amendment.
- 1954 – In the United States, the National Negro Network is established with 40 charter member radio stations.
- 1961 – John F. Kennedy is inaugurated the 35th President of the United States of America, becoming the second youngest man to take the office, and the first Catholic.
- 1969 – Richard Nixon is inaugurated the 37th President of the United States of America.
- 1972 – Pakistan launched its nuclear weapons program, a few weeks after its defeat in the Bangladesh Liberation War, as well as the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
- 1977 – Jimmy Carter is inaugurated the 39th President of the United States of America.
- 1981 – Ronald Reagan is inaugurated the 40th President of the United States of America. Twenty minutes later, Iran releases 52 American hostages.
- 1986 – In the United States, Martin Luther King, Jr. Day is celebrated as a federal holiday for the first time.
- 1989 – George H. W. Bush is inaugurated the 41st President of the United States of America.
- 1990 – Protests in Azerbaijan, part of the Dissolution of the Soviet Union.
- 1991 – Sudan's government imposes Islamic law nationwide, worsening the civil war between the country's Muslim north and Christian south.
- 1992 – Air Inter Flight 148, an Airbus A320-111, crashes into a mountain near Strasbourg, France killing 87 of the 96 people on board.
- 1993 – Bill Clinton is inaugurated the 42nd President of the United States of America.
- 2001 – George W. Bush is inaugurated the 43rd President of the United States of America.
- 2001 – President of the Philippines Joseph Estrada is ousted in a nonviolent 4-day revolution, and is succeeded by Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.
- 2007 – Four-man Team N2i, using only skis and kites, completes a 1,093-mile (1,759 km) trek to reach the Antarctic pole of inaccessibility for the first time since 1965 and for the first time ever without mechanical assistance.
- 2009 – Barack Obama is inaugurated as the 44th President of the United States of America, becoming the first African-American President of the United States.
- 2009 – A protest movement in Iceland culminates as the 2009 Icelandic financial crisis protests start.
- 2017 – Donald Trump is inaugurated as the 45th President of the United States of America, becoming the oldest person to assume the office.
- 2018 – The United States federal government shuts down after the Senate fails to pass a temporary funding bill.
- 2018 – A group of 4 or 5 gunmen attack The Inter-Continental Hotel in Kabul, Afghanistan, sparking a 12-hour battle. The attack kills at least 18 people and injures more than 22 and with reports that the death toll may rise to 43.
Back to TOP