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                              Image result for ロイター Image result for writer Image result for wikipediaImage result for writerImage result for writer
                      ヨシダが選んだ「きょうのできごと特集号」
                      (きょうのできごと実績一覧表:Eng&Jpn

             ウィキペディアからヨシダが選んだ 2月11日のできごと
                       Events February 11, Yoshida-selected 

日本語版:「1929年-ローマ教皇庁ムッソリーニ政権下のイタリア王国ラテラノ条約を締結。バチカン市国が成立。」
English Edition:"1929Kingdom of Italy and the Vatican sign the Lateran Treaty."

       "Lateran Treaty-ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA"    "Lateran Treaty-wikipedia"
                                       "Vatican City-Wikipedia"  "Vatican Treaty-pictures"
                                (The 38-photo-attached file/141.65KB)   
   Image result for 1929     Image result for Lateran Treaty   Image result for Lateran Treaty      Image result for Lateran Treaty
        Image result for Lateran TreatyImage result for Lateran TreatyImage result for confirmed by the Italian constitution of 1948.
 Image result for Lateran Treaty Image result for Lateran Treaty   Image result for Lateran Treaty
    Related imageImage result for Lateran Treaty Image result for Lateran Treaty
       Image result for Lateran TreatyImage result for confirmed by the Italian constitution of 1948.Image result for Lateran Treaty
      Image result for Lateran Treaty   Related image
      Image result for Lateran Treaty     Related image
        Related imageImage result for confirmed by the Italian constitution of 1948.

      Image result for Lateran Treaty Related image
        Image result for Lateran Treaty   Image result for confirmed by the Italian constitution of 1948.
  Image result for article 36 of the concordatImage result for the concordat      Related image

     Image result for wikipediaFlag of Vatican CityLocation of  Vatican City  (green) in Europe  (dark grey)  –  [Legend]
                               "Lateran Treaty-ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA" 
Lateran Treaty, also called Lateran Pact of 1929, treaty (effective June 7, 1929, to June 3, 1985) between Italy and the Vatican. It was signed by Benito Mussolini for the Italian government and by cardinal secretary of state Pietro Gasparri for the papacy and confirmed by the Italian constitution of 1948.

Upon ratification of the Lateran Treaty, the papacy recognized the state of Italy, with Rome as its capital. Italy in return recognized papal sovereignty over the Vatican City, a minute territory of 44 hectares (109 acres), and secured full independence for the pope. A number of additional measures were agreed upon. Article 1, for example, gave the city of Rome a special character as the “centre of the Catholic world and place of pilgrimage.” Article 20 stated that all bishops were to take an oath of loyalty to the state and had to be Italian subjects speaking the Italian language.

By article 34 the state recognized the validity of Catholic marriage and its subjection to the provisions of canon law; nullity cases were therefore reserved to the ecclesiastical courts, and there could be no divorce.

The state agreed by article 36 of the concordat to permit religious instruction in the public primary and secondary schools and conceded to the bishops the right to appoint or dismiss those who imparted such instruction and to approve the textbooks that they used.

With the signing of the concordat of 1985, Roman Catholicism was no longer the state religion of Italy. This change in status brought about a number of alterations in Italian society. Perhaps the most significant of these was the end to compulsory religious education in public schools. The new concordat also affected such diverse areas as tax exemptions for religious institutions and ownership of the Jewish catacombs.

2月11日 February 11  

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