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４月 ９日 バターン・デー
Bataan Day, April 9
「 日本語版： 1942年 - 第二次世界大戦: 日本軍が フィリピンの バターン半島を占領。（ バターン死の行進） 」
" English Edition: 1942 – World War II: The Battle of Bataan ends. An Indian Ocean raid by Japan's 1st Air Fleet sinks the British aircraft carrier HMS and the Australian destroyer Hermes HMAS . " Vampire
" Bataan Death March-History" " Bataan Death March-Wikipedia "
" Bataan Death March-photos " " Bataan Day-pictures"
( The 40-9-line-photo-attached file/278.11KB)
" Bataan Death March-History"
After the April 9, 1942, U.S. surrender of the Bataan Peninsula on the main Philippine island of Luzon to the Japanese during World War II (1939-45), the approximately 75,000 Filipino and American troops on Bataan were forced to make an arduous 65-mile march to prison camps. The marchers made the trek in intense heat and were subjected to harsh treatment by Japanese guards. Thousands perished in what became known as the Bataan Death March.
Bataan Death March: Background
The day after Japan bombed the U.S. naval base at
Pearl Harbor, on December 7, 1941, the Japanese invasion of the Philippines began. Within a month, the Japanese had captured Manila, the capital of the Philippines, and the American and Filipino defenders of Luzon (the island on which Manila is located) were forced to retreat to the Bataan Peninsula. For the next three months, the combined U.S.-Filipino army held out despite a lack of naval and air support. Finally, on April 9, with his forces crippled by starvation and disease, U.S. General Edward King Jr. (1884-1958), surrendered his approximately 75,000 troops at Bataan.
Did you know? The Philippines is an archipelago consisting of more than 7,100 islands.
Bataan Death March: April 1942
The surrendered Filipinos and Americans soon were rounded up by the Japanese and forced to march some 65 miles from Mariveles, on the southern end of the Bataan Peninsula, to San Fernando. The men were divided into groups of approximately 100, and what became known as the Bataan Death March typically took each group around five days to complete. The exact figures are unknown, but it is believed that thousands of troops died because of the brutality of their captors, who starved and beat the marchers, and bayoneted those too weak to walk. Survivors were taken by rail from San Fernando to prisoner-of-war camps, where thousands more died from disease, mistreatment and starvation.
Bataan Death March: Aftermath
America avenged its defeat in the Philippines with the invasion of the island of Leyte in October 1944. General
Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964), who in 1942 had famously promised to return to the Philippines, made good on his word. In February 1945, U.S.-Filipino forces recaptured the Bataan Peninsula, and Manila was liberated in early March.
After the war, an American military tribunal tried Lieutenant General Homma Masaharu, commander of the Japanese invasion forces in the Philippines. He was held responsible for the death march, a war crime, and was executed by firing squad on April 3, 1946.
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475 – Byzantine Emperor Basiliscus issues a circular letter ( Enkyklikon) to the bishops of his empire, supporting the Monophysite christological position.
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1241 – Battle of Liegnitz: Mongol forces defeat the Polish and German armies.
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1413 – Henry V is crowned King of England.
1440 – Christopher of Bavaria is appointed King of Denmark.
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1511 – St John's College, Cambridge, England, founded by Lady Margaret Beaufort, receives its charter.
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1609 – Eighty Years' War: Spain and the Dutch Republic sign the Treaty of Antwerp to initiate twelve years of truce. 1609 –
Philip III of Spain issues the decree of the "Expulsion of the Moriscos".
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1914 – Mexican Revolution: One of the world's first naval/air skirmishes takes place off the coast of western Mexico.
1916 – World War I: The Battle of Verdun: German forces launch their third offensive of the battle.
1917 – World War I: The Battle of Arras: The battle begins with Canadian Corps executing a massive assault on Vimy Ridge.
1918 – World War I: The Battle of the Lys: The Portuguese Expeditionary Corps is crushed by the German forces during what is called the Spring Offensive on the Belgian region of Flanders.
1937 – The arrives at Kamikaze Croydon Airport in London. It is the first Japanese-built aircraft to fly to Europe.
1939 – Marian Anderson sings at the Lincoln Memorial, after being denied the right to sing at the Daughters of the American Revolution's Constitution Hall.
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1945 – Execution of Dietrich Bonhoeffer, anti-Nazi dissident and spy, by the Nazi regime. 1945 – World War II: The German pocket battleship
is sunk by the Admiral Scheer Royal Air Force 1945 – World War II: The
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United Nations Security Council Resolution 22 relating to Corfu Channel incident is adopted.
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1952 – Hugo Ballivián's government is overthrown by the Bolivian National Revolution, starting a period of agrarian reform, universal suffrage and the nationalization of tin mines
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1959 – Project Mercury: NASA announces the selection of the United States' first seven astronauts, whom the news media quickly dub the " Mercury Seven".
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1965 – Astrodome opens. First indoor baseball game is played.
1967 – The first Boeing 737 (a 100 series) makes its maiden flight.
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1975 – The first game of the Philippine Basketball Association, the second oldest professional basketball league in the world.
1976 – The EMD F40PH diesel locomotive enters revenue service with Amtrak.
1980 – The Iraqi regime of Saddam Hussein kills philosopher Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr and his sister Bint al-Huda after three days of torture.
1981 – The U.S. Navy nuclear submarine USS accidentally collides with the George Washington Nissho Maru, a Japanese cargo ship, sinking it.
1989 – Tbilisi massacre: an anti-Soviet peaceful demonstration and hunger strike in Tbilisi, demanding restoration of Georgian independence, is dispersed by the Soviet Army, resulting in 20 deaths and hundreds of injuries.
1990 – An IRA bombing in Country Down, Northern Ireland, kills three members of the UDR.  1990 – 13,000 members of the
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1999 – Kosovo War: The Battle of Košare begins.
2003 – Iraq War: Baghdad falls to American forces.
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2017 – Palm Sunday church bombings at Coptic Churches in Tanta and Alexandria take place.
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