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Events December 23, Yoshida-selected
Wikipedia（English edition）(December 23："(Wikipedia)"
"The photos concerned:"1947 The transistor is first demonstrated at Bell Laboratories.(Photos)"
The article concerned："History of the Transistor( San José State University)"
ウィキペディア（日本語版）（１２月２３日：「1947年 - ベル研究所で初めてトランジスタを公開。」
(The 45-photo-attached file/139.24KB)
"History of the Transistor( San José State University)"
The crucial component of an electronic device is a controllable valve that lets a weak signal control a much larger flow much as a faucet controls the flow of water. At one time the controllable valve used in electronic circuits was the vacuum tube. The vacuum tube worked but it was bulky and used a lot of electrical power that ended up as heat which shortened the life of the tube itself. The transistor was a much more elegant solution to the needs of electronics. The transistor is small and uses much, much less power than the vacuum tube. Because it uses so little power there is little heat to dissipate and the transistor does not fail as quickly as does a vacuum tube.
The transistor was successfully demonstrated on December 23, 1947 at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey. Bell Labs is the research arm of American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T). The three individuals credited with the invention of the transistor were William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. William Shockley played a quite different role in the invention than the other two. Shockley had been working on the theory of such a device for more than ten years. While he could work out the theory successfully but after eight years of trying he could not build a working model. Bardeen and Brattain were called in to handle the engineering and development, which they did in the relatively short time of two years, to the consternation of Shockley. Shockley, as their supervisor, shared in the glory. What Bardeen and Brattain had created was the "point-contact" transistor. Shockley subsequently designed a new type of transistor called the "bipolar" transistor which was superior to the point- contact type and replaced it. Thus the transistor was, in large part, Shockley's creation.
William Shockley was raised in Palo Alto, the son of a mining engineer and his Stanford-educated wife. He did his undergraduate work at the California Institute of Technology (Cal Tech) in Pasadena and went on for his Ph.D. in physics at M.I.T. When he completed his doctorate, specializing in quantum physics, he went to work for Bell Labs.
Shockley had started working in 1936 on the solid state physics theory that was the basis for the transistor. There was precedence for this type of device. The early radios had signal detectors which consisted of a fine wire, called a cat's whisker, impinging upon a galena (lead sulfide) crystal. The radio user had to move the cat's whisker around upon the germanium crystal to find a suitable point of contact where a radio signal could be picked up. These early radios worked but only imperfectly. Nevertheless the principle upon which the crystal detector worked was the basis for the "point-contact" transistor. Bardeen and Brattain used germanium instead of galena in that first transistor. They also used the equivalent of cat's whiskers, but two rather than one. Shockley's design, the bipolar transistor, eliminated the delicate, troublesome point contacts. Later transistors were made from silicon, a much more common element and one that was protected from corrosion by a thin layer of silicon dioxide.
Texas Instruments of Dallas, Texas first started commercial production of junction transistors for portable radios in 1954. The Sony Company of Japan soon acquired the right to produce transistors and came to dominate the market. In the 1960's Sony began to manufacture television sets using transistors rather than vacuum tubes. Soon afterwards vacuum tube technology became obsolete.
In 1956 Shockley returned to Palo Alto to found his own company. He brought talented engineers and scientists to his company but he was a very difficult person to work with and seemed to have bazaar notion of how to manage an enterprise. For one thing, he insisted upon posting of the salaries of all the employees. This produced unnecessary friction among the employees. Ultimately the top staff joined together in leaving the company. They wanted to continue to work together in another company and Steven Fairchild of Fairchild Camera was induced to create Fairchild Semiconductor for the group.
- 484 – Huneric dies and is succeeded by his nephew Gunthamund, who becomes king of the Vandals. During his reign Christians are protected from persecution.
- 558 – Chlothar I is crowned King of the Franks.
- 562 – Hagia Sophia in Constantinople reopened with a rebuilt dome after a series of earthquakes caused the original to collapse.
- 583 – Maya queen Yohl Ik'nal is crowned ruler of Palenque.
- 679 – King Dagobert II is murdered while hunting.
- 962 – Arab–Byzantine wars: Under the future Emperor Nicephorus Phocas, Byzantine troops storm the city of Aleppo.
- 1572 – Theologian Johann Sylvan is executed in Heidelberg for his heretical Antitrinitarian beliefs.
- 1688 – As part of the Glorious Revolution, King James II of England flees from England to Paris, France after being deposed in favor of his nephew, William of Orange and his daughter Mary.
- 1783 – George Washington resigns as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army at the Maryland State House in Annapolis, Maryland.
- 1793 – The Battle of Savenay: A decisive defeat of the royalist counter-revolutionaries in War in the Vendée during the French Revolution.
- 1815 – The novel Emma by Jane Austen is first published.
- 1876 – First day of the Constantinople Conference which resulted in agreement for political reforms in the Balkans.
- 1893 – The opera Hansel and Gretel by Engelbert Humperdinck is first performed.
- 1913 – The Federal Reserve Act is signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson, creating the Federal Reserve System.
- 1914 – World War I: Australian and New Zealand troops arrive in Cairo, Egypt.
- 1916 – World War I: Battle of Magdhaba: Allied forces defeat Turkish forces in the Sinai Peninsula.
- 1919 – Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act 1919 becomes law in the United Kingdom.
- 1936 – Colombia becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
- 1941 – World War II: After 15 days of fighting, the Imperial Japanese Army occupies Wake Island.
- 1947 – The transistor is first demonstrated at Bell Laboratories.
- 1948 – Seven Japanese military and political leaders convicted of war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East are executed by Allied occupation authorities at Sugamo Prison in Tokyo, Japan.
- 1954 – First successful kidney transplant is performed by J. Hartwell Harrison and Joseph Murray.
- 1968 – The 82 sailors from the USS Pueblo are released after eleven months of internment in North Korea.
- 1970 – The North Tower of the World Trade Center in Manhattan, New York, New York is topped out at 1,368 feet (417 m), making it the tallest building in the world.
- 1970 – The Democratic Republic of the Congo officially becomes a one-party state.
- 1972 – A 6.5 magnitude earthquake strikes the Nicaraguan capital of Managua killing more than 10,000.
- 1972 – The 16 survivors of the Andes flight disaster are rescued after 73 days, having reportedly survived by cannibalism.
- 1979 – Soviet–Afghan War: Soviet Union forces occupy Kabul, the Afghan capital.
- 1986 – Voyager, piloted by Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, lands at Edwards Air Force Base in California becoming the first aircraft to fly non-stop around the world without aerial or ground refueling.
- 1990 – History of Slovenia: In a referendum, 88.5% of Slovenia's overall electorate vote for independence from Yugoslavia.
- 2002 – A U.S. MQ-1 Predator is shot down by an Iraqi MiG-25 in the first combat engagement between a drone and conventional aircraft.
- 2003 – PetroChina Chuandongbei natural gas field explosion, Guoqiao, Kai County, Chongqing, China, killing at least 234.
- 2007 – An agreement is made for the Kingdom of Nepal to be abolished and the country to become a federal republic with the Prime Minister becoming head of state.
- 2015 – A bomb explodes at Istanbul's Sabiha Gökçen Airport, killing one airport cleaner. The Kurdistan Freedom Hawks claim responsibility for the attack four days later.
- 2016 – The United Nations Security Council adopts Resolution 2334 condemning "Israeli settlements in Palestinian territories occupied since 1967".
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