Back to TOP
ウィキペディアからヨシダが選んだ １２月 ２日のできごと
Events December 2, Yoshida-selected
ウィキペディア（日本語版）（１２月 ２日：「1823年 - ジェームズ・モンロー米大統領によるモンロー宣言。ヨーロッパからの自立と相互不干渉（モンロー主義）を宣言。」
Wikipedia（English edition）(December 2："1823 – Monroe Doctrine: In a State of the Union message, U.S. President James Monroe proclaims American neutrality in future European conflicts, and warns European powers not to interfere in the Americas."
"The photos concerned:"1823 – Monroe Doctrine(Photo)"
The article concerned："Monroe Doctrine(HISTORY)"
(The 40-photo-attached file/288.12KB)
On December 2, 1823, President James Monroe used his annual message to Congress for a bold assertion: ‘The American continents … are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers.’ Along with such other statements as George Washington’s Farewell Address and John Hay’s Open Door notes regarding China, this ‘Monroe Doctrine’ became a cornerstone of American foreign policy. Secretary of State John Quincy Adams had played the most important role in developing the wording of the declaration, and he also influenced the doctrine’s overall shape.
Two things had been uppermost in the minds of Adams and Monroe. In 1821 the Russian czar had proclaimed that all the area north of the fifty-first parallel and extending one hundred miles into the Pacific would be off-limits to non-Russians. Adams had refused to accept this claim, and he told the Russian minister that the United States would defend the principle that the ‘American continents are no longer subjects of any new European colonial establishments.’
More worrisome, however, was the situation in Central and South America. Revolutions against Spanish rule had been under way for some time, but it seemed possible that Spain and France might seek to reassert European rule in those regions. The British, meanwhile, were interested in ensuring the demise of Spanish colonialism, with all the trade restrictions that Spanish rule involved. British foreign secretary George Canning formally proposed, therefore, that London and Washington unite on a joint warning against intervention in Latin America. When the Monroe cabinet debated the idea, Adams opposed it, arguing that British interests dictated such a policy in any event, and that Canning’s proposal also called upon the two powers to renounce any intention of annexing such areas as Cuba and Texas. Why should the United States, he asked, appear as a cockboat trailing in the wake of a British man-of-war?
In the decades following Monroe’s announcement, American policymakers did not invoke the doctrine against European powers despite their occasional military ‘interventions’ in Latin America. Monroe’s principal concern had been to make sure that European mercantilism not be reimposed on an area of increasing importance economically and ideologically to the United States. When, however, President John Tyler used the doctrine in 1842 to justify seizing Texas, a Venezuelan newspaper responded with what would become an increasingly bitter theme throughout Latin America: ‘Beware, brothers, the wolf approaches the lambs.’
Secretary of State William H. Seward attempted a bizarre use of the doctrine in 1861 in hopes of avoiding the Civil War. The United States, said Seward, in order to divert attention from the impending crisis, should challenge supposed European interventions in the Western Hemisphere by launching a drive to liberate Cuba and end the last vestiges of colonialism in the Americas. President Lincoln turned down the idea.
In the 1890s, the United States, once again by unilateral action, extended the doctrine to include the right to decide how a dispute between Venezuela and Great Britain over the boundaries of British Guiana should be settled. Secretary of State Richard Olney told the British, ‘Today the United States is practically sovereign on this continent and its fiat is law upon the subjects to which it confines its interposition…. its infinite resources combined with its isolated position render it master of the situation and practically invulnerable as against any or all other powers.’ The British, troubled by the rise of Germany and Japan, could only acquiesce in American pretensions. But Latin American nations protested the way in which Washington had chosen to ‘defend’ Venezuelan interests.
The greatest extension of the doctrine’s purview came with Theodore Roosevelt’s famous corollary. He announced that henceforth European nations would not be allowed to use force to collect debts owed to them by Latin American countries. In Roosevelt’s mind, however, the biggest problem he faced was not European intervention but the need to establish governments in Latin America that would maintain ‘order within their boundaries and behave with a just regard for their obligations toward outsiders.’ But the Roosevelt Corollary soon became the justification for interventions in Central America and the Caribbean, and the creation of a series of semiprotectorates on the order of the American-imposed Platt Amendment to the Cuban-American Treaty of 1903. The United States had gone to war against Spain in 1898, ostensibly to free Cuba from colonial rule. With the Platt Amendment, however, Washington placed restrictions on Cuban freedom that lasted down to the Castro revolution of 1959.
Roosevelt’s ‘Big Stick’ Latin American policy became synonymous with the Monroe Doctrine, much to the chagrin of later American policymakers, who sought in various ways to change the image of the Monroe Doctrine. Franklin D. Roosevelt announced his intention to replace the Big Stick with the Good Neighbor. At his direction, for example, the United States renounced the right to intervene in Cuban affairs under the Platt Amendment. But it did not give up its naval base in Guantenamo Bay.
A variety of treaties signed in World War II and after attempted to turn the Monroe Doctrine into a multilateral undertaking, renamed the Inter-American System. When the United States dealt with the problem of Castro’s Cuba, for example, or intervened in the Dominican Republic in 1965, Washington was always careful to declare that it was acting with, and even at the behest of, the Organization of American States.
This careful tiptoeing around the interventionist legacy of the Monroe Doctrine came to an end in the administration of Ronald Reagan. Taking advantage of the backlash of the Vietnam War, and determined to affect the outcome of guerrilla wars and revolutions in El Salvador and Nicaragua, Reagan referred to the doctrine early in his first term. And Congress passed a resolution in 1982 declaring that arms should be used to prevent the spread of Marxism-Leninism in the Americas. In 1984, Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger redefined the principles of the doctrine as meaning ‘that there should be no interference, no sponsorship of any kind of military activity in this hemisphere by countries in other hemispheres.’ Weinberger’s pronouncement had an ironic tinge, however, for in the 1982 Falklands War, when Argentina attempted to ‘reclaim’ the nearby islands it called the Malvinas, Reagan threw his support behind successful British military efforts to retain its colonial foothold in the hemisphere.
George Bush did not invoke the Monroe Doctrine in 1989 in order to justify his intervention in Panama and the hunting down of the dictator Manuel Noriega, but the groundwork had been laid by Reagan. Instead of European colonization, or even the spread of Marxism-Leninism, the doctrine now covered, by implication, almost anything that Washington felt should be removed from the hemisphere, or at least from Central America. Perhaps the territorial coverage had shrunk to that area. But what had begun in 1823 as a prohibition on European colonization-in practice, never used or needed-became in the twentieth century a fully generalized rationalization for American unilateralism.
The Reader’s Companion to American History. Eric Foner and John A. Garraty, Editors. Copyright © 1991 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
- 1244 – Pope Innocent IV arrives at Lyon for the First Council of Lyon
- 1409 – The University of Leipzig opens.
- 1697 – St Paul's Cathedral is consecrated in London.
- 1763 – Dedication of the Touro Synagogue, in Newport, Rhode Island, the first synagogue in what will become the United States.
- 1804 – At Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, Napoleon Bonaparte crowns himself Emperor of the French.
- 1805 – War of the Third Coalition: Battle of Austerlitz: French troops under Napoleon Bonaparte decisively defeat a joint Russo-Austrian force.
- 1823 – Monroe Doctrine: In a State of the Union message, U.S. President James Monroe proclaims American neutrality in future European conflicts, and warns European powers not to interfere in the Americas.
- 1845 – Manifest destiny: In a State of the Union message, U.S. President James K. Polk proposes that the United States should aggressively expand into the West.
- 1848 – Franz Joseph I becomes Emperor of Austria.
- 1851 – French President Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte overthrows the Second Republic.
- 1852 – Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte becomes Emperor of the French as Napoleon III.
- 1859 – Militant abolitionist leader John Brown is hanged for his October 16 raid on Harpers Ferry, West Virginia.
- 1865 – Alabama ratifies 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, followed by North Carolina then Georgia, and U.S. slaves were legally free within 2 weeks
- 1867 – At Tremont Temple in Boston, British author Charles Dickens gives his first public reading in the United States.
- 1899 – Philippine–American War: The Battle of Tirad Pass, termed "The Filipino Thermopylae", is fought.
- 1908 – Puyi becomes Emperor of China at the age of two.
- 1917 – World War I: Russia and the Central Powers sign an armistice at Brest-Litovsk, and peace talks leading to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk begin.
- 1927 – Following 19 years of Ford Model T production, the Ford Motor Company unveils the Ford Model A as its new automobile.
- 1930 – Great Depression: In a State of the Union message, U.S. President Herbert Hoover proposes a $150 million (equivalent to $2,197,000,000 in 2017) public works program to help generate jobs and stimulate the economy.
- 1939 – New York City's LaGuardia Airport opens.
- 1942 – World War II: During the Manhattan Project, a team led by Enrico Fermi initiates the first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
- 1943 – World War II: A Luftwaffe bombing raid on the harbour of Bari, Italy, sinks numerous cargo and transport ships, including the American SS John Harvey, which is carrying a stockpile of World War I-era mustard gas.
- 1947 – Jerusalem Riots of 1947: Riots break out in Jerusalem in response to the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine.
- 1949 – Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others is adopted.
- 1950 – Korean War: Battle of the Ch'ongch'on River ended, with decisive Chinese victory, UN forces were completely expelled from North Korea.
- 1954 – Cold War: The United States Senate votes 65 to 22 to censure Joseph McCarthy for "conduct that tends to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute".
- 1954 – The Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, between the United States and Taiwan, is signed in Washington, D.C.
- 1956 – The Granma reaches the shores of Cuba's Oriente Province. Fidel Castro, Che Guevara and 80 other members of the 26th of July Movement disembark to initiate the Cuban Revolution.
- 1957 – United Nations Security Council Resolution 126 relating to Kashmir conflict is adopted.
- 1961 – In a nationally broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declares that he is a Marxist–Leninist and that Cuba is going to adopt Communism.
- 1962 – Vietnam War: After a trip to Vietnam at the request of U.S. President John F. Kennedy, U.S. Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield becomes the first American official to comment adversely on the war's progress.
- 1970 – The United States Environmental Protection Agency begins operations.
- 1971 – Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Sharjah, Dubai, and Umm al-Quwain form the United Arab Emirates.
- 1971 – The Soviet space program's Mars 3 orbiter releases a descent module. It lands sucessfully but loses contact, but it is the first man-made object to land softly the surface of Mars.
- 1975 – Laotian Civil War: The Pathet Lao seizes the Laotian capital of Vientiane, forces the abdication of King Sisavang Vatthana, and proclaims the Lao People's Democratic Republic.
- 1976 – Fidel Castro becomes President of Cuba, replacing Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado.
- 1980 – Salvadoran Civil War: Four American missionaries are raped and murdered by a death squad.
- 1982 – At the University of Utah, Barney Clark becomes the first person to receive a permanent artificial heart.
- 1988 – Benazir Bhutto is sworn in as Prime Minister of Pakistan, becoming the first woman to head the government of an Islam-dominated state.
- 1989 – The Communist insurgency in Malaysia was ended by peace agreement signed and ratified by the Malayan Communist Party (MCP), and the Malaysian - Thailand governments.
- 1991 – Canada and Poland become the first nations to recognize the independence of Ukraine from the Soviet Union.
- 1993 – Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar is shot and killed in Medellín.
- 1993 – Space Shuttle program: STS-61: NASA launches the Space Shuttle Endeavour on a mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope.
- 1999 – The United Kingdom devolves political power in Northern Ireland to the Northern Ireland Executive following the Good Friday Agreement.
- 2001 – Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.
- 2015 – San Bernardino attack: Syed Rizwan Farook and Tashfeen Malik kill 14 people and wound 22 at the Inland Regional Center in San Bernardino, California.
- 2016 – Thirty-six people die in a fire at a converted Oakland, California, warehouse serving as an artist collective.
Back to TOP