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Events December 17, Yoshida-selected
Wikipedia（English edition）(December 17："1790–The Aztec calendar stone is discovered at El Zócalo, Mexico City." "Aztec calendar stone(Wikipedia)"
"The photos concerned:"1790–The Aztec calendar stone(Photos)"
The article concerned："Sun Stone(ANCIENT HISTORY ENCYCLOPEDIA)"
"The National Museum of Anthropology(Photos)"
ウィキペディア（日本語版）（１２月１７日：「1790年 - メキシコシティで太陽の石が発掘される。」 (The 77-photo-attached file/281.43KB)
"Sun Stone(ANCIENT HISTORY ENCYCLOPEDIA)"
(by Mark Cartwright)
The Aztec Sun Stone (or Calendar Stone) depicts the five consecutive worlds of the sun from Aztec mythology. The stone is not, therefore, in any sense a functioning calendar, but rather it is an elaborately carved solar disk, which for the Aztecs and other Mesoamerican cultures represented rulership. At the top of the stone is a date glyph (13 reed) which represents both the beginning of the present sun, the 5th and final one according to mythology, and the actual date 1427 CE, thereby legitimizing the rule of Itzcoatl (who took power in that year) and creating a bond between the divine and mankind.
The stone was discovered in December 1790 CE in the central plaza of Mexico City and now resides in the National Museum of Anthropology in that city. The richly carved basalt stone was once a part of the architectural complex of the Temple Mayor and measures 3.58 metres in diameter, is 98 centimetres thick, and weighs 25 tons. The stone would originally have been laid flat on the ground and possibly anointed with blood sacrifices. When it was discovered, the stone was lying flat and upside down, perhaps in an attempt to prevent the final cataclysm - the fall of the 5th and final sun - as the Aztec world fell apart following the attack from the Old World.
At the centre of the stone is a representation of either the sun god Tonatiuh (the Day Sun) or Yohualtonatiuh (the Night Sun) or the primordial earth monster Tlaltecuhtli, in the latter case representing the final destruction of the world when the 5th sun fell to earth. The tongue is perhaps also a sacrificial knife and, sticking out, it suggests a thirst for blood and sacrifice. Around the central face at four points are the other four suns which successively replaced each other after the gods Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca struggled for control of the cosmos until the era of the 5th sun was reached. The suns are known by the day name on which their final destruction occurred. Beginning from the top right there is the first sun Nahui Ocelotl (4 - Jaguar), top left is the second sun Nahui Ehécatl (4 - Wind), bottom left the third sun Nahui Quiáhuitl (4 - Rain) and bottom right is the fourth sun Nahui Atl (4 - Water).
On either side of the central face are two jaguar heads or paws, each clutching a heart, representing the terrestrial realm. The band running immediately around the suns is segmented into the 20 Aztec day-names (hence the Calendar Stone name). Then there is a decorative ring surrounded by another ring depicting symbols which represent turquoise and jade, symbols of the equinoxes and solstices, and the colours of the heavens. The two heads at the bottom centre represent fire serpents, and their bodies run around the perimeter of the stone with each ending in a tail. The four cardinal and the inter-cardinal directions are also indicated with larger and lesser points respectively.
- 497 BC – The first Saturnalia festival was celebrated in ancient Rome.
- 546 – Siege of Rome: The Ostrogoths under king Totila plunder the city, by bribing the Byzantine garrison.
- 920 – Romanos I Lekapenos is crowned co-emperor of the underage Constantine VII.
- 942 – Assassination of William I of Normandy.
- 1398 – Sultan Nasir-u Din Mehmud's armies in Delhi are defeated by Timur.
- 1538 – Pope Paul III excommunicates Henry VIII of England.
- 1583 – Cologne War: Forces under Ernest of Bavaria defeat troops under Gebhard Truchsess von Waldburg at the Siege of Godesberg.
- 1586 – Go-Yōzei becomes Emperor of Japan.
- 1718 – War of the Quadruple Alliance: Great Britain declares war on Spain.
- 1777 – American Revolution: France formally recognizes the United States.
- 1790 – The Aztec calendar stone is discovered at El Zócalo, Mexico City.
- 1807 – Napoleonic Wars: France issues the Milan Decree, which confirms the Continental System.
- 1812 – War of 1812: U.S. forces attack a Lenape village in the Battle of the Mississinewa.
- 1819 – Simón Bolívar declares the independence of Gran Colombia in Angostura (now Ciudad Bolívar in Venezuela).
- 1835 – The second Great Fire of New York destroys 50 acres (200,000 square meters) of New York City's Financial District.
- 1837 – A fire in the Winter Palace of Saint Petersburg kills 30 guards.
- 1862 – American Civil War: General Ulysses S. Grant issues General Order No. 11, expelling Jews from parts of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Kentucky.
- 1865 – First performance of the Unfinished Symphony by Franz Schubert.
- 1892 – First issue of Vogue is published.
- 1896 – Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania's Schenley Park Casino, which was the first multi-purpose arena with the technology to create an artificial ice surface in North America, is destroyed in a fire.
- 1903 – The Wright brothers make the first controlled powered, heavier-than-air flight in the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
- 1907 – Ugyen Wangchuck is crowned first King of Bhutan
- 1913 – A spur of the Shaker Heights streetcar line opens, the first line of the eventual Cleveland RTA Rapid Transit system.
- 1918 – Darwin Rebellion: Up to 1,000 demonstrators march on Government House in Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia.
- 1919 – Uruguay becomes a signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
- 1926 – Antanas Smetona assumes power in Lithuania as the 1926 coup d'état is successful.
- 1927 – Indian revolutionary Rajendra Lahiri is hanged in Gonda jail, Uttar Pradesh, India, two days before the scheduled date.
- 1928 – Indian revolutionaries Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev Thapar and Shivaram Rajguru assassinate British police officer James Saunders in Lahore, Punjab, to avenge the death of Lala Lajpat Rai at the hands of the police. The three were executed in 1931.
- 1935 – First flight of the Douglas DC-3.
- 1938 – Otto Hahn discovers the nuclear fission of the heavy element uranium, the scientific and technological basis of nuclear energy.
- 1939 – World War II: Battle of the River Plate: The Admiral Graf Spee is scuttled by Captain Hans Langsdorff outside Montevideo.
- 1941 – World War II: Japanese forces land in Northern Borneo.
- 1943 – All Chinese are again permitted to become citizens of the United States upon the repeal of the Act of 1882 and the introduction of the Magnuson Act.
- 1944 – World War II: Battle of the Bulge: Malmedy massacre: American 285th Field Artillery Observation Battalion POWs are shot by Waffen-SS Kampfgruppe Joachim Peiper.
- 1947 – First flight of the Boeing B-47 Stratojet strategic bomber.
- 1948 – The Finnish Security Police is established to remove communist leadership from its predecessor, the State Police.
- 1950 – The F-86 Sabre's first mission over Korea.
- 1951 – The American Civil Rights Congress delivers "We Charge Genocide" to the United Nations.
- 1957 – The United States successfully launches the first Atlas intercontinental ballistic missile at Cape Canaveral, Florida.
- 1960 – Troops loyal to Emperor Haile Selassie in Ethiopia crush the coup that began December 13, returning power to their leader upon his return from Brazil. Haile Selassie absolves his son of any guilt.
- 1960 – Munich C-131 crash: Twenty passengers and crew on board as well as 32 people on the ground are killed.
- 1961 – Niterói circus fire: Fire breaks out during a performance by the Gran Circus Norte-Americano in the city of Niterói, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, killing more than 500.
- 1967 – Harold Holt, Prime Minister of Australia, disappears while swimming near Portsea, Victoria, and is presumed drowned.
- 1969 – Project Blue Book: The United States Air Force closes its study of UFOs.
- 1970 – 1970 Polish protests: In Gdynia, soldiers fire at workers emerging from trains, killing dozens.
- 1973 – Thirty passengers are killed in an attack by Palestinian terrorists on Rome's Leonardo da Vinci–Fiumicino Airport.
- 1981 – American Brigadier General James L. Dozier is abducted by the Red Brigades in Verona, Italy.
- 1983 – Provisional IRA members detonate a car bomb at Harrods Department Store in London. Three police officers and three civilians are killed.
- 1989 – Romanian Revolution: Protests continue in Timișoara, Romania, with rioters breaking into the Romanian Communist Party's District Committee building and attempting to set it on fire.
- 1989 – Fernando Collor de Mello defeats Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in the second round of the Brazilian presidential election, becoming the first democratically elected President in almost 30 years.
- 1989 – The Simpsons first premieres on television with the episode "Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire".
- 2002 – Second Congo War: The Congolese parties of the Inter Congolese Dialogue sign a peace accord which makes provision for transitional governance and legislative and presidential elections within two years.
- 2003 – The Soham murder trial ends at the Old Bailey in London, with Ian Huntley found guilty of two counts of murder. His girlfriend, Maxine Carr, is found guilty of perverting the course of justice.
- 2003 – SpaceShipOne, piloted by Brian Binnie, makes its first powered and first supersonic flight.
- 2005 – Anti-World Trade Organization protesters riot in Wan Chai, Hong Kong.
- 2005 – Jigme Singye Wangchuck abdicates the throne as King of Bhutan.
- 2009 – MV Danny F II sinks off the coast of Lebanon, resulting in the deaths of 44 people and over 28,000 animals.
- 2010 – Mohamed Bouazizi sets himself on fire. This act became the catalyst for the Tunisian Revolution and the wider Arab Spring.
- 2014 – The United States and Cuba re-establish diplomatic relations after severing them in 1960.
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