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ウィキペディア（日本語版）（８月１３日）「1868年 - チリ北部沖でマグニチュード8.9のアリカ地震発生。」
Wikipedia（English edition）(August 13："1868–The 8.5–9.0 Mw Arica earthquake struck southern Peru with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme), causing 25,000+ deaths and a destructive basin wide tsunami that affected Hawaii and New Zealand."
"The photos concerned:"The Arica earthquake"
(The 52-photo-attached file/269.59KB)
- 29 BC – Octavian holds the first of three consecutive triumphs in Rome to celebrate the victory over the Dalmatian tribes.
- 523 – John I becomes the new Pope after the death of Pope Hormisdas.
- 554 – Emperor Justinian I rewards Liberius for his long and distinguished service in the Pragmatic Sanction, granting him extensive estates in Italy.
- 582 – Maurice becomes Emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
- 900 – Count Reginar I of Hainault rises against Zwentibold of Lotharingia and slays him near present-day Susteren.
- 1099 – Raniero is elected as Pope Paschal II.
- 1516 – The Treaty of Noyon between France and Spain is signed. Francis I of France recognizes Charles's claim to Naples, and Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, recognizes Francis's claim to Milan.
- 1521 – After an extended siege, forces led by Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés capture Tlatoani Cuauhtémoc and conquer the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan.
- 1532 – Union of Brittany and France: The Duchy of Brittany is absorbed into the Kingdom of France.
- 1536 – Buddhist monks from Kyoto, Japan's Enryaku-ji temple set fire to 21 Nichiren temples throughout in what will be known as the Tenbun Hokke Disturbance. (Traditional Japanese date: July 27, 1536).
- 1553 – Michael Servetus is arrested by John Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland as a heretic.
- 1624 – The French king Louis XIII appoints Cardinal Richelieu as prime minister.
- 1645 – Sweden and Denmark sign Peace of Brömsebro.
- 1704 – War of the Spanish Succession: Battle of Blenheim: English and Imperial forces are victorious over French and Bavarian troops.
- 1779 – American Revolutionary War: The Royal Navy defeats the Penobscot Expedition with the most significant loss of United States naval forces prior to the attack on Pearl Harbor.
- 1792 – King Louis XVI of France is formally arrested by the National Tribunal, and declared an enemy of the people.
- 1806 – Battle of Mišar during the Serbian Revolution begins. The battle will end two days later, with a decisive Serbian victory over the Ottomans.
- 1814 – The Convention of London, a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United Provinces, is signed in London, England.
- 1868 – The 8.5–9.0 Mw Arica earthquake struck southern Peru with a maximum Mercalli intensity of XI (Extreme), causing 25,000+ deaths and a destructive basin wide tsunami that affected Hawaii and New Zealand.
- 1889 – William Gray of Hartford, Connecticut is granted United States Patent Number 408,709 for "Coin-controlled apparatus for telephones." 
- 1898 – Spanish–American War: Spanish and American forces engage in a mock battle for Manila, after which the Spanish commander surrendered in order to keep the city out of Filipino rebel hands.
- 1898 – Carl Gustav Witt discovers 433 Eros, the first near-Earth asteroid to be found.
- 1905 – Norwegians vote to end the union with Sweden.
- 1906 – The all black infantrymen of the U.S. Army's 25th Infantry Regiment are accused of killing a white bartender and wounding a white police officer in Brownsville, Texas, despite exculpatory evidence; all are later dishonorably discharged. (Their records were later restored to reflect honorable discharges but there were no financial settlements.)
- 1913 – First production in the UK of stainless steel by Harry Brearley.
- 1918 – Women enlist in the United States Marine Corps for the first time. Opha May Johnson is the first woman to enlist.
- 1918 – Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW) established as a public company in Germany.
- 1920 – Polish–Soviet War: The Battle of Warsaw begins and will last till August 25. The Red Army is defeated.
- 1937 – Second Sino-Japanese War: The Battle of Shanghai begins.
- 1942 – Major General Eugene Reybold of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers authorizes the construction of facilities that would house the "Development of Substitute Materials" project, better known as the Manhattan Project.
- 1944 – World War II: German troops begin the pillage and razing of Anogeia in Crete that would continue until September 5.
- 1954 – Radio Pakistan broadcasts the "Qaumī Tarāna", the national anthem of Pakistan for the first time.
- 1960 – The Central African Republic declares independence from France.
- 1961 – Cold War: East Germany closes the border between the eastern and western sectors of Berlin to thwart its inhabitants' attempts to escape to the West, and construction of the Berlin Wall is started.
- 1964 – Peter Allen and Gwynne Evans are hanged for the Murder of John Alan West becoming the last people executed in the United Kingdom.
- 1967 – Two young women became the first fatal victims of grizzly bear attacks in the 57-year history of Montana's Glacier National Park in separate incidents.
- 1968 – Alexandros Panagoulis attempts to assassinate the Greek dictator Colonel Georgios Papadopoulos in Varkiza, Athens.
- 1969 – The Apollo 11 astronauts enjoy a ticker tape parade in New York City. That evening, at a state dinner in Los Angeles, they are awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by U.S. President Richard Nixon.
- 1977 – Members of the British National Front (NF) clash with anti-NF demonstrators in Lewisham, London, resulting in 214 arrests and at least 111 injuries.
- 1978 – One hundred fifty Palestinians in Beirut are killed in a terrorist attack during the second phase of the Lebanese Civil War.
- 2004 – One hundred fifty-six Congolese Tutsi refugees are massacred at the Gatumba refugee camp in Burundi.
- 2008 – Russo-Georgian War: Russian units occupy the Georgian city of Gori.
- 2015 – At least 76 people are killed and 212 others are wounded in a truck bombing in Baghdad, Iraq.
- 29 BC – Octavian holds the second of three consecutive triumphs in Rome to celebrate the victory over the Dalmatian tribes.
- 1040 – King Duncan I is killed in battle against his first cousin and rival Macbeth. The latter succeeds him as King of Scotland.
- 1183 – Taira no Munemori and the Taira clan take the young Emperor Antoku and the three sacred treasures and flee to western Japan to escape pursuit by the Minamoto clan (traditional Japanese date: Twenty-fifth Day of the Seventh Month of the Second Year of Juei).
- 1288 – Count Adolf VIII of Berg grants town privileges to Düsseldorf, the village on the banks of the Düssel.
- 1352 – War of the Breton Succession: Anglo-Bretons defeat the French in the Battle of Mauron.
- 1370 – Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor, grants city privileges to Carlsbad which is subsequently named after him.
- 1385 – Portuguese Crisis of 1383–85: Battle of Aljubarrota: Portuguese forces commanded by King John I and his general Nuno Álvares Pereira defeat the Castilian army of King John I.
- 1457 – Publication of the Mainz Psalter, the first book to feature a printed date of publication and printed colophon
- 1480 – Battle of Otranto: Ottoman troops behead 800 Christians for refusing to convert to Islam; they are later honored in the Church.
- 1592 – The first sighting of the Falkland Islands by John Davis.
- 1598 – Nine Years' War: Battle of the Yellow Ford: Irish forces under Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, defeats an English expeditionary force under Henry Bagenal.
- 1720 – The Spanish military Villasur expedition is wiped out by Pawnee and Otoe warriors near present-day Columbus, Nebraska.
- 1791 – Slaves from plantations in Saint-Domingue hold a Vodou ceremony lead by houngan Dutty Boukman at Bois Caïman, marking the start of the Haitian Revolution.
- 1814 – A cease fire agreement, called the Convention of Moss, ended the Swedish–Norwegian War.
- 1816 – The United Kingdom formally annexes the Tristan da Cunha archipelago, administering the islands from the Cape Colony in South Africa.
- 1842 – American Indian Wars: Second Seminole War ends, with the Seminoles forced from Florida to Oklahoma.
- 1848 – Oregon Territory is organized by act of Congress.
- 1880 – Construction of Cologne Cathedral, the most famous landmark in Cologne, Germany, is completed.
- 1885 – Japan's first patent is issued to the inventor of a rust-proof paint.
- 1888 – An audio recording of English composer Arthur Sullivan's "The Lost Chord", one of the first recordings of music ever made, is played during a press conference introducing Thomas Edison's phonograph in London, England.
- 1893 – France becomes the first country to introduce motor vehicle registration.
- 1900 – The Eight-Nation Alliance occupies Beijing, China, in a campaign to end the bloody Boxer Rebellion in China.
- 1901 – The first claimed powered flight, by Gustave Whitehead in his Number 21.
- 1911 – United States Senate leaders agree to rotate the office of President pro tempore of the Senate among leading candidates to fill the vacancy left by William P. Frye's death.
- 1912 – U.S. Marines invade Nicaragua to support the U.S.-backed government installed there after José Santos Zelaya had resigned three years earlier.
- 1914 – World War I: Start of the Battle of Lorraine, an unsuccessful French offensive designed to recover the lost province of Moselle from Germany.
- 1916 – Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary.
- 1921 – Tannu Uriankhai, later Tuvan People's Republic is established as a completely independent country (which is supported by Soviet Russia).
- 1933 – Loggers cause a forest fire in the Coast Range of Oregon, later known as the first forest fire of the Tillamook Burn; it is not fully extinguished until September 5, after destroying 240,000 acres (970 km2).
- 1935 – Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act, creating a government pension system for the retired.
- 1936 – Rainey Bethea is hanged in Owensboro, Kentucky in the last known public execution in the United States.
- 1937 – The beginning of air-to-air combat of the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II in general, when six Japanese bombers are shot down by Chinese fighters while raiding Chinese air bases.
- 1941 – World War II: Winston Churchill and Franklin D. Roosevelt sign the Atlantic Charter of war stating postwar aims.
- 1945 – Japan accepts the Allied terms of surrender in World War II and the Emperor records the Imperial Rescript on Surrender (August 15 in Japan Standard Time).
- 1945 – The Viet Minh launches August Revolution amid the political confusion and power vacuum engulfing Vietnam.
- 1947 – Pakistan gains Independence from the British Empire and joins the Commonwealth of Nations.
- 1959 – Founding and first official meeting of the American Football League.
- 1967 – UK Marine Broadcasting Offences Act declares participation in offshore pirate radio illegal.
- 1969 – Operation Banner: British troops are deployed in Northern Ireland.
- 1971 – Bahrain declares independence as the State of Bahrain.
- 1972 – An Ilyushin Il-62 airliner crashes near Königs Wusterhausen, East Germany, due to an in-flight fire, killing 156.
- 1973 – The Pakistan Constitution of 1973 comes into effect.
- 1975 – The Rocky Horror Picture Show, the longest-running release in film history, opens in London.
- 1980 – Lech Wałęsa leads strikes at the Gdańsk, Poland shipyards.
- 1994 – Ilich Ramírez Sánchez, also known as "Carlos the Jackal", is captured.
- 1996 – Greek Cypriot refugee Solomos Solomou is murdered by Turkish forces while trying to climb a flagpole in order to remove a Turkish flag from its mast in the United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus.
- 2003 – A widescale power blackout affects the northeast United States and Canada.
- 2003– Project Thread, an operation launched by CSIS and other Canadian law enforcement agencies, saw the arrest and incarceration of 24 innocent Muslim men, most of them young Pakistani students.
- 2005 – Helios Airways Flight 522, en route from Larnaca, Cyprus to Prague, Czech Republic via Athens, crashes in the hills near Grammatiko, Greece, killing 121 passengers and crew.
- 2006 – Sixty-one schoolgirls killed in Chencholai bombing by Sri Lankan Air Force air strike.
- 2007 – The Kahtaniya bombings kills at least 334 people.
- 2013 – Egypt declares a state of emergency as security forces kill hundreds of demonstrators supporting former president Mohamed Morsi.
- 2015 – The US Embassy in Havana, Cuba re-opens after 54 years of being closed when Cuba–United States relations were broken off.
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